Professor Roy on Molecular Structure
Combinations of water and silver have been in use for decades in the form of colloidal silver. These colloids have a majority ingredient (water) and a second ingredient (silver) which is typically well under 1% by mass. Yet, when people discuss colloidal silver, they focus almost exclusively on the silver. What about the water? What about the 99%?
To many people, the water is uninteresting. "It's just water." According to the late Professor Rustum Roy of Penn State University, nothing could be further from the truth.
Professor Roy spent many years in materials science, pioneering and publishing research on hard materials such as ceramics and diamonds. His findings on materials in the liquid state, most notably water, are the focus of this presentation.
A 40-minute version of this presentation is also available on AuthorStream. Several sections of the text have been transcribed below.
This presentation will permanently change how you view water and the structured of liquids. Enjoy!
Water, Water Everywhere
Audio transcription: Good morning, ladies and gentlemen.
Water, water everywhere. But our take on this is it is so little understood. And the message from this presentation is fundamental to everything you know about water. What you learn from this is, it is the structure of water, not its composition, which is important.
There are three authors for this paper: myself, Professor Rustum Roy, Dr. Tania Slawecki, and Dr. Manju Lata Rao.
That’s the speaker of today. Unfortunately the two young colleagues of mine are not around to record their portions.
Ok, this is what I am. I hold five professorships at these various major universities, I’m elected to National Academies, and I’ve spent 50 years championing the practice of interdisciplinality in these fields: materials research, science technology society, science and art, science and religion, role of sex and money in culture.
I want to stress that I’m a hard scientist. I don’t only mean a rigorous scientist, I mean a person who works with hard materials. Our lab is well known for what we’ve done with diamond synthesis. We work in rubies and all the silicon carbides, all the hardest materials on the Earth.
So, but what is “hard science”? How does one describe it? I have a long list on the wall of my lab in which we get quotations from Aristotle to William James to, right down to Alfred North Whitehead, about 10 of these, emphasizing what I am saying here. So this is not some idiosyncratic definition of “hard science.”
Hard science is one which deals with facts. Solid, reproducible facts. Reproducible experiments which connect cause and effect, which have been repeated, several times, depending on how extraordinary the new facts are. And it’s repeated in other labs. What I have to say is at the bottom of the page: explanations or theories are NOT, I repeat, NOT a part of hard science. Not necessarily a part. They come later – and they change frequently. They do not alter the facts. Theories alter; they come and go, and come and go on every subject in science. But what remains unchanging is hard science …
This is science, now, I’m presenting this as science for the citizen, not for the expert. The citizen who is really interested… useful science about water. This is not to get a PhD, or to write another paper, or get another citation.
So let me start you with the first law of material science, for the citizen. It comes right after the first two laws of thermodynamics, for everything you want to know about real, ordinary science, is stuff you touch and feel and so on, like water that you drink, is what you ought to know. The first two laws of thermodynamics, and then the first law of materials science. And what is that? Most scientists have never heard about it. Maybe they’ll learn something.
It is that structure determines properties. Most importantly: not the composition, but the structure of a condensed phase. A material is called a condensed phase. It’s either a solid or a liquid. So it is structure that determines its properties …
Thousands of scientists, ignorant outside of their own specialty (unfortunately, that is the reductionist culture of science) they merely think of composition as a way to change properties. “Add something to it.” Haha. No, no, no. That’s a routine thing to do, obviously, it does change it, but the way to really drastically change properties is to change its structure.
So because they believe in composition first, they always keep asking “is your substance, is your water or your solid, pure?” and if so, they say “oh, well, it’s just water.” And they assume, erroneously as I will show you in a minute, liquid water always has the same properties.
Nothing, ladies and gentlemen, could be further from the truth. Water comes in a myriad different structures with a myriad different sets of properties.
What is Structured Water?
So what, then, do we mean, by the “structure” of liquid water? First, it is, indeed, made up of building blocks that are equal to molecules. A typical building block is a closely held arrangement of oxygen and hydrogen, but these are building blocks of different size and shape. Now, the next step is most important. Those blocks, surely, the building blocks are surely not the structure of water any more than if you walked into your house and you said, “Well, what’s the structure of this house? Where’s the bedroom and the bathroom and the living room etc…oh, it’s just the bricks.” It’s just the bricks. Is water just H2O? No. Nothing to do with it. The structure is the arrangement, in three dimensions, of the building blocks. Now you’ve grasped, I think, what we mean by “structure”, in the world of material science and crystallography and relevant sciences. Structure is the arrangement in three dimensions of the building blocks, not the description of the building blocks.
Here are some building blocks. If you go to Martin Chaplin’s website, (just go to Martin Chaplin, that’s enough,) this brilliant man has collected, over years and years and six or seven million hits on his website, all the structure of water information: of molecules of water, not of liquid condensed matter… make the distinction.
But this is studying the stuff, we wrote a seminal paper, and there’s a reference in it, Materials Research Innovations, Volume 9, page 577, it’s a 40 page paper, so that’s worth looking at if you’re seriously interested.
… what is important is, water is bonding between the red part, which is kind of an H2O unit, and a cluster. And I’ve drawn black circles around a particular cluster. I mean, I don’t know what they are, but let’s take cluster A, B, C and D.
Now what is very, very important is to note that within the black area, the bonds are largely, those which you can see, they’re short bonds and they’re kind of hydrogen bonds and covalent bonds, and so on. And then if you look, if you kind of look at it, of course, if you consider that the bonds between the black area from one black area to the next one is very different. I’m telling you that. I can’t show it there but it’s very different. Now that is the supreme argument that lies at the fundamental heart of what we’re talking about.
There are different, very, very different bonds. Some are strong and some are weak. There’s a ratio probably of 1 to 500 between the weak bond, between the black and black areas, and some of the strongest bond between the oxygen to hydrogen bond. So, huge differences in the bonding: that is what makes water so fascinating and so important, and why it is absolutely important that you grasp that water can be changed by such weak vectors.
Pushing it here. Pushing it with a little light photon and so on. That is the unequalness, inequality, of bonding in water. By a factor of, say, 500 to 1. But of course, many others in between. That is what is so fascinating, we explain now about the mutability of the structure.
So this is a little introductory science for every citizen. You should really grasp it. Look at that nice sexy term: Anisodesmicity. I think Linus Pauling, my mentor, the great crystal chemist of this country, talked about bonding as a key. Anisodesmic means unequal bonding, highly unequal bonding, and it is the key to water’s uniqueness.
Now let me show you how dramatic this can get. And water’s worse than what I’m going to show you, but I’m going to show you an example now. I call it a tale of two materials: diamond and graphite.
These are both very common, every citizen, adult, here knows about diamond and graphite. Let’s compare and contrast the properties and the structure. Now, if we’re like the anti-homeopath crowd, were to say, “Well, folks, it’s just carbon! It’s just carbon. They can’t be different.” Now you understand how ludicrous that claim has been.
Diamond is the hardest material by far on the planet earth, as far as we know, so far. Graphite is one of the softest materials: it’s in your lead pencils. So-called lead pencils. Every time you write with a lead pencil, you’re breaking up graphite. Diamond, you break it up? Does your ring give way or something? Hardest material, softest material. Why?
Now look at the bonds in diamond. On the left you see this arrangement of a 3D network in three dimensions. All the bonds are equal. Each one’s bond length is 1.54. On the right hand side, you see the layers of chains, of sheets of carbon atoms arranged, all hexagons and tightly bonded to each other. Please look at the number. 1.43 angstrom for the length in the graphite, it is even shorter than the bond in the diamond.
So, you learned something today: that graphite, in one direction, is harder than diamond. What do you know? See? But now look at the other side. Between the sheets, there’s a distance of 3.35 angstrom. Huge difference. So that the electrostatic forces, the bonds between the sheets of paper which make up graphite are very, very weak. So when you move your pencil, those sheets break and that’s why you get a dark mark. If you were to do that with diamond, it would scratch any other material. It’d make a hole in the other material. Exactly the opposite.
So, profound differences due to anisodesmicity, the unequalness of bonds.
Now think about that when we’ll be talking about water. Between those black units which I showed before, the bonds are like even weaker than the bonds you’ve seen between graphite layers, and so they can easily be moved.
The analogy is a beautiful illustration which something you, most of us in the audience have experienced. We’ve seen diamonds and they don’t wear out, and we’ve used lead pencils. So, “It’s just carbon” doesn’t go anywhere. “It’s just water” is even more incorrect.
So, your key questions. So, how many kinds of liquid water are there? The answer is: very very many. Undoubtedly infinite. How long do these structures last? Some, in our laboratories, hours and hours and days, we have some for months. Some for very long times at room temperature. Remember what I’m saying: near room temperature, 25 Celsius to 15 Celsius, they last a long time.
Changing Water's Structure
How can you change water? The vast majority of scientists would reply: “Only by temperature and pressure.”
Well, that’s what I thought thermodynamics was for forty or fifty years, and that’s what I thought it was too.
But there are several other ways we can change matter. We know that. Electric fields change matter. Magnetic fields change matter. Strain fields change matter. Epitaxy causes all kind of interesting changes. What I’m using this fun term for: ignoring these is the real black hole of modern science.
On the earth - forget the skies - on the earth, the biggest black hole in our science is that we ignore all the common vector and tensor fields which change matter.
A huge hole, folks. This has opened up an entire field of research. But it all, it manifests first in the structure of water.
Epitaxy is a particularly materials science term, so I want to introduce you to it. It is the imprinting of one structure onto another without transferring any matter. Especially from a solid to a liquid, we use it in the semiconductor industry routinely. Without transferring matter, we only transfer the pattern or information. Epitaxy is the transfer of information without any matter.
Now the part of these vectors has now been thoroughly proven in our and many many other researchers’ work on the most important solids.
Those vectors which I discussed, e-field, electric field, magnetic field, and so on, are very powerful vectors so we’re not talking about anything simple. Nothing to do with water yet, these are the most important solids to the modern American citizen.
What is much more important for us here is that such vectors have been shown to work in changing water. Thoroughly proven, worldwide, for millennia, including the present.
In other words, changing water, has been something that has been discussed in such circles for a long, long time, and people have said it’s impossible, etc, etc. Well, now we can offer them an explanation, even a plausibility, for this science.
Now, my colleague, Dr. Slawecki, is not here, so I will talk about what she did originally in the presentation.
Here’s what we do: we can change water by suspending charged nanoparticles. That’s a colloid. A more proper term is aquasol. Now, among the colloids, you can have silver colloids, which I will talk about in a minute, ultra-dilute, homeopathic stuff, holy waters, coming from the waters of Lourdes or of Venezuela, or whatever, are just special, and now we say, “Oh, that may have a special material in suspension.”
We know that certain minerals are suspended and they have strong electrostatic fields around them, etc. Plausibility, now, sudden, when you give structure changeable by fields like electric or magnetic fields, and then you let loose the epitaxial potential of said suspended materials. You’ve got a whole new ball game.
I can also change it by radiation, and I’ll show you in a minute. Microwave, radio frequency, and of course light, which is a million times stronger, and so on.
How do we look and study this? We don’t do a lot of elaborate stuff, we do simple things which anybody can do in a lab, with a $10,000 piece of gear: pH, surface tension, zeta potential, spectroscopy, Raman, of course, and Fourier transform infrared and UV-Vis. And of course we do chemical analysis when we need it.
So what is a colloid? We permanently suspend them. It’s important. Fine particles, solid particles, dispersed permanently in water, or a liquid, is called a colloid. Right? Milk is a colloid, blood is a colloid, mayonnaise is a colloid… So you know that very well.
Now, we can structure the water with nanoparticles. Einstein, who’s most-cited paper, by the way, is the Brownian motion paper, about colloids. Ok? A colloid acts like an atom. He implied this in 1905, and this was a very important topic. These funny mixtures of solid suspended in liquids permanently. Three Nobel Prizes were given before, about the time Einstein got his Nobel Prize, three Nobel Prizes were given for colloids, two in one year. Two in one year! So it is a very important topic…
Now I want to tell you, kind of, wonderful use, ability of colloidal silver, they make a dispersion, and it is so good because this stuff enhances the life, usability, of any antibiotics. Because bugs don’t learn to use silver colloids and then get immune to them. Wonderful. So you can, by mixing into it a silver colloid, with regular antibiotics, you can extend their use for life. Isn’t that a wonderful thing? First, they kill bugs as well as any other antibiotic. Second, they extend the life. Isn’t that great? Now, 99.999999 parts of water is doing as well…
Then they even go further than some of the antibiotics, this is preliminary data from a big hospital in India, and you know, HIV, what do you know? You can do pretty well with nano silver…
And in fact, they do very well with malaria. Here’s the biggest lab, a UN certified lab, everything else, and the director is saying it kills falciparum, which is the worst kind of malaria.
So this is not something weird, far-off, this is one of the really most significant opportunities. I’m amazed. I can only say, stunned, that the Gates foundation has not said “Hey, look at this! All over the world! Give it to ten labs all over…if this is true, then you can grind out pure water to send all over the world, and the people who take this just drink it three times a day, that’s it. You don’t need any attention, you don’t need anything else…”
It goes even further, it attacks the most amazing things…here’s a patient who has leprosy, now, leprosy is not exactly a favorite topic but…
With a gel of that. So summary on colloids is: it’s well established that colloidal silver is an antibacterial agent, it extends that. Works on viruses. What can we expect from the proper scientific utilization of different colloids, of different metal, different materials? Not only metals, and that the whole, there’s going to be a whole pharmacopea of colloids…
Now we come to radiation. One way to change water, as I said, is to put in colloids. Another way to change it is radiation. Let’s start with a big strong wave. These are 10,000x weaker than the light above your head. Right? Microwaves, like your microwave oven… except he does one thing, he polarizes the beam, he sticks it upside down in the water. And therefore you get a magnetic field in one direction, electric field in the other direction, and by golly, he produces a different kind of water. And you notice it corrodes plastic, it even attacks stainless steel. How can all that be? Just water, boiled by being exposed to a polarized microwave beam …
Conclusions - Weak Radiation, Structured Water Products, Colloidal Silver...
Summary. The facts are voluminous, indisputable and compelling. What are they? That even very weak radiation can and does drastically change solids, which I’ve told you about, and liquids, as in water. We have shown some very spectacular effects. So they’re not going to disappear, these are not in the noise, so we better start accepting them.
What is the future? The new vectors for designing water-based products for use in major industries and for maintaining health or causing healing are just legion now. The opportunity is just … the sky is the limit.
Structuring of water by colloidal silver or by radiation now becomes possible for the human race, and we think it is the most benign, easiest vector to use for many, many processes. And the things that we have used are electromagnetic, I’ll also tell you that sound can do it as well, acoustic, vibrational and subtle energies, and maybe human intention. And we are all doing this because of the use of resonance, that peculiar phenomenon which Plank and Einstein explicitly ignored, and polarization.
So, a whole new field awaits us, and people who wish to know more or come to us to do this kind of work, we are very happy to talk.